Whyte has only lost once – to Anthony Joshua – in 28 fights, while Russian Povetkin is a former world champion.
“I am not overlooking him. He will come in shape, he’s tough and very well-schooled,” said Whyte, 31.
“I’ve got respect for him but I’m on to maximum violence, straight animal instinct.”
The bout at Manchester Arena will be Whyte’s second after having a charge for a doping violation dropped. He made his return to the ring in December by beating Poland’s Mariusz Wach on points.
With Fury set for a third bout against American Deontay Wilder and Joshua confirmed to be defending his world titles against Kubrat Pulev in London in June, Whyte is being made to wait for his opportunity at one of boxing’s top prizes.
“Dillian Whyte sits as mandatory challenger to Tyson Fury and while the wait is frustrating, Dillian continues to take high-risk fights and that’s why he is such a fans’ favourite,” said Whyte’s promoter Eddie Hearn.
“This is a heavyweight thriller and so important to the landscape of the division.”
Povetkin, 40, has only lost two of his 40 professional fights, to Joshua and former world heavyweight champion Wladimir Klitschko.
“I am pleased to fight Whyte, it has long been discussed but didn’t happen for whatever reason,” said Povetkin.
“Dillian is a good strong boxer and it will make for an interesting fight. I am not about big announcements, I am about winning in the ring, and on 2 May people will see a spectacular fight.”